As ores move through the submerged arc furnace during processing it passes through a number of reaction zones.

In the upper furnace zone the particulates are present as “loose charge” and product gas from the lower furnace consisting of principally CO and CO2 passes through this packed bed. Reactions between the gases and the solid ores result in the partial reduction of the ores and the formation of iron and alloy, and in some cases metal carbides resulting Decomposition of limestone fluxes e.g. CaCO3, and other minerals, Gasification of carbon; reaction with air and CO2, Gaseous reduction of ores and partial metallization of iron and oxides.

In the lower furnace zones, a series of reaction steps take place involving the slag phase; Dissolution of ores spinel in slag, Reduction of the slag phase to form alloy, Alloy/slag separation.

Although the overall reaction is described by the removal of oxygen by solid carbon, this reaction can take place through a number of pathways involving; carbon monoxide formation from solid carbon or carbon dissolved in alloy; reaction of CO gas with slag; metal on diffusion in the slag phase.

Each of these mechanisms contributes to the overall recovery of desired alloy. Optimization of the process to enhance the rates and extent to which these reactions proceed, and to maximize recovery. Production rate and energy efficiency is assisted by improved understanding of the various reactions and reaction mechanisms operative in the process, and by taking action through feed selection and preparation, and adjustment of process conditions.

Mughal Iron and Steel Industries Limited (MISIL) utilizes the renowned MCC-SERIES (one of the largest equipment manufacturers in China) for smelting process. Chorme One, Manganese One and Silica Manganese are used as raw materials to produce Ferro Chrome, Ferro Manganese, Ferro Silicomanganese and Ferro Silicon at Mughal Steel.