Plain-Carbon steel, commonly known as Mild steel, is the most typical form of steel because of its relatively low price while it provides additional metal properties more so than iron that are acceptable for most of applications. Low-carbon steel contains approximately 0.05–0.320% carbon making it supple and ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low malleable strength, but it is economical and easy to formulate; surface toughness can be increased through carburizing.
Mild steel is frequently used when large quantities of steel are needed, for example as structural steel. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm3 (7850 kg/m3 or 0.284 lb/in3) and the Young’s modulus is 210 GPa (30,000,000 psi)
Mild-carbon steels undergo from yield-point run out where the material has two yield points. The upper yield point is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically after the upper yield point. If a low-carbon steel is not stressed throughout between the upper and lower yield point then the surface may develop Lüder bands. Low-carbon steelsare easier to cold-form, as they contain less carbon than other steels, making them easier to handle.
Spring steel with very high yield strength allows objects made of it to return to their original shape despite significant bending or twisting because it’s a low-alloy made of nickel,medium-carbon steel or high-carbon steel. Music wire is the most widely used spring steel[ASTM A228 (0.80–0.95% carbon)]. Other grades of spring steel are AISI 1075, AISI 1095, AISI 5160 (we commonly produce), 301 Spring-tempered stainless steel (A666).
Spring steel is one of the most common materials used in the fabrication of lock picks due to its pliability and resilience, leaf springs, vehicle coil springs,piano wire, spring clamps, springs, s-tines and antennas. Due to its resistance to snapping or shattering it is also used in the manufacturing of metal swords used for stage combat.
Also because of its ability to absorb the shock Tubular spring steel is widely used by aircraft manufacturing companies in aircraft’s landing gear, as it also acts like damping.
Austenitic stainless steel is an alloy containing chromium, nickel and sometimes molybdenum and nitrogen, structured around the Type 302 composition of iron, 18% chromium, and 8% nickel. Austenitic steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment.300 Series austenitic stainless steel has austenite as its primary phase (face centered cubic crystal). 200 Series austenitic stainless steels replace the majority of their nickel content with manganese to reduce cost. The most popular stainless steel is probably SAE 304 stainless steel, also called 18/8 or A2 stainless steel. Type 304 is an austenitic steel containing 18-20% chromium and 8-10% nickel used as surgical stainless steel.
Ferritic stainless steelsare less expensive alloys because they have reduced corrosion resistance due lesser chromium and nickel content but usually have better engineering properties than austenitic grades. They contain minor amount of nickel and between 10.5% -27% chromium but some types can contain lead. MISIL compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni. These alloys can be degraded by the presence of chromium, an intermetallic phase which can precipitate upon welding.
“Alloy steel” is the standard term referring to steels with other alloying elements in addition to the carbon.Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called alloy steels, to improve the mechanical properties that enhance its toughness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, hardness, hardenability,strength and hot hardness of steel it is alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight. To achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat treating.Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: high-alloy steels and low-alloy steels, difference between the two alloys is somewhat arbitrary: Smith and Hashemi define the difference at 4.0%, while Degarmo, et al., define it at 8.0%.
Common alloy-ants include manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common alloy-ants include aluminum, cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin, zinc, lead, and zirconium.
Alloy steel is used in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of spacecraft, jet engines and in nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel alloys find imperative applications where their reactions to magnetism are highly important, like in electric motors and in transformers.